742 (Feb. 2, 1925), pp. tP6MsYKcV+NeLPUBgfAYFZgt7Myhls5WVhUENCQQf+emKpV5lUX2mvZXMVza290k8M1zHJDG8aSW 0rQ4NPt5kjtYnvNTjZ7WNVRSfRIWOVVjFCAak8jQijNqivLP5b+aV1S5/wAQaRpQ06+JFzJaahqM The colour formed when stainless steel is heated, either in a furnace application or in the heat affected zone of welds, is dependent on several factors that are related to the oxidation resistance of the steel. /9j/4AAQSkZJRgABAgEASABIAAD/7QAsUGhvdG9zaG9wIDMuMAA4QklNA+0AAAAAABAASAAAAAEA 0h6z/pS2ltHaSV41fgOVJo3uioYmn7tOuKpXc3OsRatb202taq+kQakrR62mu6cqyWYjRXmnjISs Xydw+1H8iYu+X2fqd/0Lmn+/rr/g4Mf5Xydw+1f5Exd8vs/U7/oXNP8Af11/wcGP8r5O4fav8iYu nf4D8t/8sH/TzL/zTj/K81/laf4p3+A/Lf8Aywf9PMv/ADTj/K81/laf4p3+A/Lf/LB/08y/804/ UeqW00Vzaw3FkIpbmKSGKSJXEymRZPU+BlBqG7YqwWP8shBJbonm3zFHbzR+nDYi/tVhlDAV4x8v xmp.did:5CE7F61E06C0E511B03CF46413AD20B0 zb0FPHNWRjvmfk7AYMtcvtX/APK9/KP/AC2f9O039cHDj7z8k+Bl7vtd/wAr38o/8tn/AE7Tf1x4 If white light is incident on the oxide, and the latter appears blue, the implication is that the red component is eliminated, meaning that the oxide layer is about 0.25×725 nm thick. Most commonly, 304 grade stainless steel is used. Millimeters oB4kGhWSpG3Wh64VTU65+U8/mSSKSx0/9MWNxLcSXUmkOjJLC8jPOsrEFjzt2PJKkkVxVOvL/wCb 76f/ANJaf804+Etu/wCVw+SP+rvp/wD0lp/zTj4S27/lcPkj/q76f/0lp/zTj4S27/lcPkj/AKu+ oNOh/mrsqyj9I2/8k3/Iib/mjFVmnypLLesoYD1wPjVkP9zH2YA4qxLzZ5E8x37ahfaR5n1OC7n5 If steel is heated in an oxidizing atmosphere - like air - a film of oxide forms on the surface and the color changes as the temperature increases. AP8AdfxcpDReNa4qqaF+bPkfXdUj0rS7yWe/kkaIQG2njIZUMhJLoq8eArWtMVZcsUSrxVFVRsAA Ytbi/j/QpRnV7QTlWc/CqypA7gAVDErXphVU13zrfT3NzNa/mi2mNCtJLOPSBKkZtoB67jmpdgWt /SB5u0tbjTNL8mpp2k2txdx6fHBd+nHJGis8UgjSRQnrSnf76b7Kp95NuvNepm+XzLoEmhNbui2j The … ItHd4lJtQ3EAFfrJVkVQvwbdsVep6kNDP1cW5sVmLv6ZcRlA3oSceQG9OVMVecx/8rqfTWhb/CcW 2. RD8qmlOuFWBXHkT/AJx0jt2meXTZLdeUsksWtXMwCk8PjeMsadVFT3NNziqZ2n5cfkh5p1O5jsFs 0+PzhJSktMTU5PRldYWVpbXF1eX1RlZmdoaWprbG1ub2R1dnd4eXp7fH1+f3OEhYaHiImKi4yNjo uuid:cc9b03a6-cd65-4451-b4e7-bb969357b745 i0jmshG91G8CPEresDIrM5VStagnFXnU35SshhlHnnzVAgRFQrqdugMJqEClWXYsVod/DworaYN+ PFSyOabd6kV2IxVlV1qWnevZ/wClQ7TGv7xf98ye+BUPr8dhq+mS2Ka1JpjSFSLyxnjjnXia/CzB Melting Points of Heat-Treating Baths g5dhmU6pINFm/Oe0udNt9TuLW9s2uKX9yltMZUgM0snLeOEVEQSL4VO5B7MSq0bT83XkiddX9KL6 Oxide films on stainless steels have been classified into three types according to film thickness, film structure, film composition, and influence of the film on resistance to corrosion. cOD/ALhV7j+QzfzU/wApYP5wd/yqr8v/APy4cH/cKvcfyGb+av8AKWD+cHf8qq/L/wD8uHB/3Cr3 Aluminum-oxide ceramics Al2O3 99.9% Good resistance to most media used in the process industry, such as alkalis and acids with concentrations up to 10% at 85°C, solvents, chlorides and hydrocarbons. SaYFRuq/W40hkuJoWgRpGlX0HaqiCQt8PqHlt2xV43F+Yn/ON1sovIV0mO5/d8kTRZxLXmsgqQOL SidOJxVl/k19Ze0uT5yj0CK7Ev8Aog0osYzDxH9565ry5V6YFR3mFdPexKaU+nx6myzCykmEZiWc n/LT/wAI/wDzTirv8S6J/wAtP/CP/wA04q7/ABLon/LT/wAI/wDzTirv8S6J/wAtP/CP/wA04q7/ ... oxidation, weld reject and potential weld failure. BT/9UcfGh3hfDPc7/lTPnD+e0/4Kf/qjj40O8L4Z7nf8qZ84fz2n/BT/APVHHxod4Xwz3O/5Uz5w fUX/ACNXIf6G5/zx8mX8vw/ml3/KufNH++ov+Rq4/wChuf8APHyX+X4fzS7/AJVz5o/31F/yNXH/ The Yale Center for British Art (left) is the most famous example of using heat to create a darker surface color. XSntLq1Z5WmaSsTRlaFVH7Tqf2fDOh7P0hwYhAm6dHrtSM2QzApDeZNF8yato+mWenXVzo09lJDP an5T0zyrpk3nUWc+lOUWEXNmbhFlFs7VoXPxGNXUU3NaDrhVjXl38yvyU0lrm58rzWFvyiV7+Ww0 9zfxmMvHEsXqOiunNjwVjU9etRtgV6RbyzwW8UItbmQRIqCSR4mduIpVmMm5Pc4qgNSd7lNTt5Y7 The versatile Ultra-Blak 407 107, No. Q0Fbjym9rFpLSMVSKyktl5sA/L02dD8SurDboRgVMdaNxFAkl3LC9shladTAzAoLeUsCvq7/AA12 qZbpt1P+jrX/AEOY/uY96w/yj/izFWJ/mF5X8weYJbS40/ULjRxaxTxsokZFkaZQAW9G7gU8KchU /lfbaZ57ufNccloWuXmcwC2uPURp2dmkSWS7lRZH9QB2EXEqKKqVOZeTWmWIY99vMf8AE/p+bi49 obHwFMHR4SNCFVJicvEzJDRDghaSUyWiY7LCB3PSNeJEgxdUkwgJChgZJjZFGidkdFU38qOzwygp WnxoHH0VzZaWJEN3i+2tRiy6gyxDhhQ2qvsRuvz+ap9C0pPK8y2t1G8Et29zDOVeCOOrQrSGShka O9Nup/0da/6HMf3Me9Yf5R/xZlbY8r138vPy40q/u21vUJbF9dkkup7eeTToGkCPzf0G+CSL7dHa Ksy0yz8zR6M9pqc015qr2a28urRpbwFpqy/vFijlATjzXpirC7nyn+fP1yll53MWn1bgsmm2Eksa Dg/5ox/kQ/zl4sv9H7XfoHyf46h/wcH/ADRj/Ih/nLxZf6P2u/QPk/x1D/g4P+aMf5EP85eLL/R+ endstream endobj 3 0 obj <> endobj 9 0 obj <>/Resources<>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Thumb 16 0 R/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 1190.0 841.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 10 0 obj <>stream The color of the "stain" is a function of the layer thickness. cxFlry4GD1KFulF6MDiq2TzjqVrY381z5/CJDFEsl0+jlVg5Ccl1UVDyN9WbqeO2w3AKqW2nnW+h rNw+s8efDiv+/PipWuYGo4eL08nc6Pj8Mcf1I+G38uXOhpbNJbQme1EZljaNZE5x8eSt2YVqDlLl wqI9z7YqwOP8x4GMEMvlfzGlw5gRl/R1u0UbzLT4n47LGfgc8ajwpTCqN8q+eE17VYtGk0HXNMee /P6n+b/sS7/lYPnn/fSf9Iif8040O9fz+p/m/wCxLv8AlYPnn/fSf9Iif8040O9fz+p/m/7Eu/5W 2016-01-21T08:13:46+03:00 1b 1c 1d 1e 1f 1g Heat Tint Recognition Chart For Stainless Steel Welding Pictures 1a to 1 g provided by Norsok for the Norsok Standard M-601 Welding and Inspection of Piping (Edition 5 April 2008) (Annex B). U8Xyj51Hl6C0e09REvpLhtEOoyxwCB4BGkf15P354T1n48KVan7KnFUO3k/8x4b2W7t0MjpcpcH1 6nP7F/kyXeHf4j8w/wC/k+5f+qeP+jfB/qc/sX+TJd4Tvy7caneWs8zSxLIZiJOUZepCJQ1Vox0p K3JQ9wCpC0+OPmPormXhiRHd4ztnUYc2oM8IqFDpXTuZbpuoQDTrUcZv7mP/AHRN/KP8jLXVsR8z Aj015OzGQ8ftMzA/OuKsq8l6d580qOSPzJqsmvKIo47dhbWtsysjOXdykrFiysi7/wAtepOKsn+t qnj/AKN8H+pz+xf5Ml3h3+I/MP8Av5PuX/qnj/o3wf6nP7F/kyXeHf4j8w/7+T7l/wCqeP8Ao3wf fs/Z+7tirjFAHDFFD7qpoK77kD7sVcsECkFY1BA4ggAUXw+WKtmKIkEopI6bD5Yq0tvAoAWNAAKC Stainless steel is heat treated during production (annealed). 0Y5xBYzTyiOeT6rLwics9Art8Jr2OKvNU0vVYbtjF+UMXpxKwt3TUrdT+7llcGlKKXajbd26nsVT nSu3TFWHRX/57h50nGhtHEgFrJHBqCNNIJk+KXkkgjDRK1QoNK7eyqqt7+dQgkhJ0pmWRzDcGC89 M5AAA5HfbAqRfmHqraX5bN4NTk0nhc2oa6itmu3KtOgaIQorsfUHw7DFXktn5z1m+u4fq35lySQW lQaKfqkfT/gc1oA73DnrtSJECO39Urf+Vg+ef99J/wBIif8ANOGh3sPz+p/m/wCxLv8AlYPnn/fS AtWEVPjT1MVYtr+m+bdW0fRo9A1K50GW3eKW6njitbgywiIgxhZZOAqSDVlPyxVj9j5R/OdIpYr7 uuid:cc9b03a6-cd65-4451-b4e7-bb969357b745 4wZipM003T4Dp1qeU39zH/u+b+Uf5eByWNeffMNx5fEEdp5f1LXfWhuZWNs9w8aPFGTHGxUvvK23 It is used to add mild corrosion resistance, for appearance and to minimize light reflection. The colours observed in the photographs below are consistent with the tempering temperature and indicate an oxide film thickness of about 200 nm. Wv8Apkw/cx7Uh/lH/FeScpgH5mar5H8uavY3OvaU2qX1+CEuxBp8jp6VFT1PWCuF+P7VOI7nYYVT +rFXiPnVtcttc1ae21LXAPWn9CCHXNLt7dXLlgipOrNGjcF2YFlBp05YVTvQL68vfMCQ6vquoaQV The colours are produced by the interference that occurs as light waves pass through the transparent passive layer [3]. ���^-��֫�����!���~�!�BH���bPN6�w���k;�mbBT�zF�স6r_����kM�Y���p���w������ҰҸ�d�RE�SIȪbc6!�_we2T�b����;6���TI��4�ڂk�Dq�>��w��m=�m=����O1�t�h;�Pj&~���S����n���T��n�͇u�]W�2�3z9���dW����sVܝ�qS�����g �kg-�*p�iV� �bld�áMc\��w���n�{ܣ���e�M�C}�sf�-q�I�v�M��B^*NO4l�a�#����Gȡ�Yʳ�42y�JP2��9�����x�������8룂�u�0��n{X}i{�&�te!MY�#詍���&mJ�)si�=�A*0sH{|X_,1��=mמ@�� 7�c�0{y"��t�]�ޚ:'%�N*�c�O��l�mm�K�'&Eqc���/[Z�r���n_�K�j�7n������E�9���;1)U����ԒlBھX? 2016-01-21T08:13:42+02:00 WUmroZoweRrxJPw8VxVCaVqn5cNF+j7y801nMVzNZNHc6xJzvITxgL1ADRs7ycuB34gr7Kp7e6x5 pf5s+TZLHTA9/NcT3qOkcgtLgNJJbpEZSY1Rin98ux8aYFVD+cHkUX01gbm4F7bxmWaD6pc8lX1h pkacWMHoM0XJjxf0zTkqRsKitD023Ksh8jec7bzNc3lra6frWjTWSxtOupWdvaghx+740Vq1FaDw xtbtIrWyLM0qmP1PiBQHbvirzGTzb/zj8NDS5a30k6V9vh+iH4iYqhCenXeTjToCB3IruVZZ+V+s 4YpZBccC/qEPXgGiqvhv1xVmXk+yuNI0ZbFrq+1uSOWTnfXc0U0teVPTLGVj+7FF3Ne53OBVXzKo FeVPh98Cs1xV2KviK2/LDyJNGWk89pbMDT05dLui3z/ds4/HMw9n5v5rhDtPB/O+9V/5VV+X/wD5 pqTXaXCnkGdeDKyUKjZlBofngVO49NsrhL+0uI/Xt3nRnjmZpASsUTD7ZJ2Kg4q8q1i5E3mHXLez Stainless steels will naturally passivate to a high degree on exposure to air such that air exposure is normally all that is required to achieve acceptable corrosion resistance. RSXlo0/r3srtBFJ6rOFeB4v3zO86hZDVDsS9Iwqn2qfm5r9rNeJZ+S9QvooxIbGVRMgnKSqiK4a3 FJJIE9ZuCIIyWZqUAA3xVgcX5qWExWNfK/mb6wyVYNpUSxrJQDg0hT8QvTCqYeSvPsfma/TTJNA1 65qWi3OkzvFFpomknSOYwtI7TWzooYH4T6cUgD0PEkbHfCrFNE8gef7KRGvbX64izSs0J1WaFS7N trXP+WS3++b/AJrx/wBDeh/1KH+lC/6KdR+CXf8AK2tc/wCWS3++b/mvH/Q3of8AUof6UL/op1H4 Avery, published in April 2004 Stainless Steel World, when defin-ing acceptance criteria for heat tint on stainless steel welds, For example, 321 stainless welded with 347 filler wire will often show a bluish tint, Not a big deal unless you are welding multi-passes in which case it should be removed. qWgazFdXohNxJbNZXMbJGpUMSXZU+FpFU0Y74FTnV5GtrfVrjUXhlsIbH1LyM2zyBoVExkX0/UPK When light of a wavelength λ is reflected from metal covered with an oxide film, it is eliminated by destructive intereference if the thickness of the oxide is 0.25λ. 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