hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 2 + ………. aabccacaaIZaqcfa4damaabmaakeaajugib8qacaWGobGaaeiiaiab We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Department of Science Laboratory Technology Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria. Kruskal WH, Wallis WA. The high CV months accounted for 15.84% of RF occurrences during the study period. aawIcacaGLPaaajugib8qacaqGGaqcfa4damaabmaakeaajugib8qa vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x aGdaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaaiMdacaaI3aGaaG4maaGcpaqaaKqz (1). 2003. In the Southern part of the country, the raining season begins in the late weeks of February/early weeks of March and ends in October. SummaryMean monthly rainfall data of 28 meteorological stations in Nigeria for the period 1911–1980 are analysed to examine trends in precipitation patterns in the country. It is important in the study of hydrologic cycle and water resources; however, it is not very vital for agriculture and in understanding seasonal distribution of RF. September, July, June and October recorded higher RF than August. = 12/N ( 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 June, September, October, May, and July are months with low CV. The inferential statistics used among others include Kruskal Wallis et al.,29 test for several treatment29 which shall be used to examine relationship in RF distribution over time. Longman, London. Therefore, the aim of the study is to detect the trend of rainfall in the Niger-South Basin, Nigeria. Annual rainfall show increasing trend in the southern and central part of the state with exception of Lau in the northern part of the state. The mean RF of Port Harcourt is 2369.06mm; from Figure 3, 10 out of the 21 years in the first climatic regime had RF below the mean. hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr Department of transportation Planning and Logistics, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, Nigeria, Correspondence: Alexander Budnuka Chinago, Department of transportation Planning and Logistics, School of Environmental Sciences, Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic, P.M.B. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa The paper is designed to study the rainfall patterns and its implications in Nigeria. Regional Variation in the Seasonality of Precipitation in Bangladesh. This study will affect transportation in all ramifications. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= Descriptive and Inferential statistics shall be employed for analysis. 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 2 2 Figure 3 shows that the amount of RF is decreasing over years. An investigation was conducted to ascertain probable linkage between climate variability and trends in rice yield in Nigeria. aaBaaabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaWcpaqabaqcLbsapeGaey4kaSIaam4q C vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x However, this has not change the pattern or characteristics of rainfall. The abundant heat or solar energy within the tropics melts super cold water molecules at high altitude. hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 2 The causes of the flooding which could be natural and or manmade have not been established. Hence there is need for proper study of the pattern in the variations of these climatic parameters, such as rainfall. C 1990. permits unrestricted use, distribution, and build upon your work non-commercially. feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn r= 1 August had a CV of 43.86%, though it is among the wettest months. GaamOBaiaaigdaaaGaaiiOaiaacckajuaGdaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWd = Extreme environmental events, such as floods, droughts, rainstorms, and high winds, have severe consequences for human society. In addition Figure 3 show that the first 42 year had more RF distribution over the 2800 minor gridline than the last 42 year. ∴ There is no significant difference in RF variability/pattern in Port Harcourt over years. The study period is eighty four years (84) from 1931–2014. Climate is the mean state of the atmosphere of a location or an area over a defined period of 25 to 30 years or more. Global Warning and Global water. For instance, Ifabiyi et al., 6 discovered from their study “Rainfall Trends in the Sudano – Sahelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria “that annual rainfall has increased from 1990-2009. 5936, Rumuola, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, Tel +2348032939972, Received: July 20, 2019 | Published: January 7, 2020, Citation: Chinago AB. The mean rainfall for September is 374.44mm. c 2 Figure 1 Map of rivers state showing Port Harcourt, the study area. HiwlaaigdacaqGGaGaai4eGiaabccacaWGYbqcfa4damaaCaaaleqa MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= 1 Abdullah, A.M. 1* Kasim, I., 1 Harun, R. 1 Mande, K.H. 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 Rainfall characteristics in Nigeria have been studied for dominant trend notably by Olaniran & Summer (1989, 1990). Extreme Climate Variability in North – Western Nigeria: An Analysis of Rainfall Trends and Patterns. qaaKqzadWdbiaaigdaaSWdaeqaamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbiaaikda Observing climate variability and change. From the Figure 3, it shows that 70 years of the 84 years under review recorded annual RF above 2000mm, and only 14 years had RF below 2000mm annually. 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 N+1 This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Alexander BC. N + 1 We had items from 1 – 84(first year of the study to the last year of the study). On a seasonal scale, July-August-September (JJA) contributed over 40% of the annual rainfall, while rainfall was lowest during December-January- February (DJF) (4.5%). feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn A savanna climate, with marked wet and dry seasons, prevails in the north and west, while a steppe climate with little precipitation is found in the far north. eo8aZjaadMhaaaa@4C12@ It is the last part of the Niger The history of mankind shows that man had experienced one form of climatic variability or another. Impact of climate on crop yield over, Nigeria. ► Four dominant distinct rainfall cycles with periods 2–3, 5–7, 10–15 and 30 yr were found. Ukpong IE. 21 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x Lecture Monograph on Agro-climatology. …  aaaaWdbiaacIbicaWG0bGaaiygGiaabccacqGH9aqpcaqGGaGaamOC It is situated 15.0 metre above sea level; it is a relatively low land area. This agrees with the studies of Ati et al. 12 fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf 2006. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcLbsaqaaaaa daGcpaqaaKqba+qadaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaadoeal8aadaWgaa aajugWa8qacaaIYaGaai4laaaajugibiaac+cacaWGUbqcfa4damaa gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x ‘t’Calculated’< ‘t’critical at 95% confidence level therefore H0 is accepted. It is the only city or mega city in Rivers State (with the idea of greater PORT HARCOURT). Nieuwolt17 stated that the amount of RF that is normally received in an area determines which type of agriculture that can be carried out and which crops can be cultivated in a region. Environmental systems Club Inc. Uyo, Nigeria. This is the mean monthly RF over the study period. The hot Harmattan wind from the Sahara sweeps across the northeastern areas which. e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ The interest in the study of RF in the tropics shows its importance. 973 In future studies, temperature, sunshine duration and rainfall should be study together for a dependable generalization of climatic variability and pattern of weather in Port Harcourt. Trend and temporal distribution of rainfall. 1 e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ ► We examined the existence of trend and periodicity in rainfall of Nigeria over the last century. The author declares there are no conflicts of interest. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= Rainfall spatial distribution was highly latitudinal dependent (r2 > 0.90) and had no clearly linear relations with the longitude. Critical = 7.81. vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x The general fluctuations observed in this work is just up and downs of natural system, but of serious note is the fact that flooding has increase in the area and rainfall intensity has also increase. The descriptive statistics used among others include graphs, tables, mean, and standard deviation, coefficient of variation, true mean and percentage. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= We examined the existence of trend and periodicity in rainfall of Nigeria over the last century. On the other hand, RF is highly seasonal over most parts of the tropics with exceptions of few mountain areas, the growing season/harvest unlike in the temperate region is determined by the availability of RF.2,4 RF occurrence depends on other elements of climate like wind, temperature, cloud cover, and relative humidity. (Table 1) The results from time series analysis showed that rainfall fluctuated in an upward trend through the period of study. Studies also abound in seasonal and seasonality of RF.7,23,24 Seasonal RF is important in the field of agriculture and even in monitoring of incidences of drought and flood. r = coefficient of correlation, while n is the number of pairs or the sample size. baqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@4A68@ KEY WORDS:drought; trend; change point; rainfall, annual; rainfall, variables; Nigeria; Pettitt test; rainy season; Sahel 1. Analysis of trend in rainfall data also aids to see the result of rainfall variability on the occurrence of drought and flood. C The five lowest RF variability months accounted for 63.85% of the entire RF over Port Harcourt during the study period. Climate, Water and Agriculture in the Tropics. In Nigeria, the climate is tropical, semi-arid in the far north, ... and it even exceeds 3,000 mm (120 in) in the far south-east (the map below shows the average rainfall, in millimeters on the left and in inches on the right). H1: There is significant difference in RF variability/ pattern over Port Harcourt. Physical Geography for African Oxford University Press London. The rainfall pattern shows double Maxima with an August break or dry spell in between the two peak months of July and September. A communication Guide for Reporter sound Educators Ibadan, NEST. xy−nσ There was a sharp difference between changes in rainfalls in 1931–1960 and 1961–1990 periods. Since Furthermore, seven … biaadoeal8aadaWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaaikdaaSWdaeqaamaaCaaabe Figure 2 Seasonal distribution of rainfall over Port Harcourt. abgAci8kabgAci8kaac6cacaqGGaGaey4kaSIaaeiiaiaadoeal8aa + This work is based on a long data record. hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr Srivastava MK. 2010. ) ( gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa The present study is limited to Port Harcourt and just one element of climate (Rainfall) is considered. n 2 These cycles may be associated with the stratospheric Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), the El-Nino Southern Oscillation … Use of Ranks in One Criterion Variance Analysis. The seasonal pattern of RF for the four climatic regimes is shown below as Figures 2.1–2.4.   929 NW 164th Street, Edmond, OK 73013 (Mailing Address) More Locations, Roosevelt 7/ 8, Széchenyi István tér 7- 8C tower, 1051 - Budapest, MedCrave Group Kft, Email: support@medcrave.com, Toll free: +1 (866) 482 - 9988, Fax No: +1 (918) 917 - 5848, © 2014-2020 MedCrave Group Kft, All rights reserved. The study could be to address problem at hand or for just an academic exercise. 2 It is actually an illusion to the true distribution of RF. This was subjected to analysis using Kruskal-Wallis test.29 All the rainfall distributions were classified or rank in an ascending order. Port Harcourt has two dominant soil types- the alluvial soil and the ferrasol26–28 Port Harcourt is the only big city in Rivers State. To achieve this, the 84 years RF data shall be exclusively grouped into four, with each group having a 21 years record. N+1 The study by [4] on “Rainfall trends in Nigeria” analyzed Annual mean rainfall data of 28 meteorological stations in Nigeria from 1911-1980. fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf 1 Abdullahi, A.C. 2 1.Faculty of Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia 2.Environmental Management Technology Programme, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, Nigeria Corresponding Author: … INTRODUCTION Because rain-fed agriculture is the most important mode of employment and food production in West Africa, records of several rainfall variables are used extensively in planning for agricultural and water resources projects. The importance of RF on a given area depends on how it affects the people’s life and what the researcher seeks to achieve. In the face global climate change, many scholars have engaged in studying various element of climate to understand the present pattern and characteristic of climate. gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa 2 The map of the multidecadal rainfall trend (brown colors in Figure 6b) ... Burkina Faso, and Niger. 2 r With the high tide in the Atlantic Ocean, rivers Niger and Benue (and their tributaries), which run through the centre of the country experienced a back lash and surge of water into the hinterlands. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Volume 79, Issue 4, May 1996, Pages 219-231 [4] Ayoade, J. O. WGUbGaeq4WdmNaamiEaKqbaoaaCaaaleqabaqcLbsacaGGQaaaaiab Nigerian Population Commission. Generally RF is recorded in almost all the months following the mean record. It means that these months are responsible for at least 1512.65mm of RF annually. August mean RF is 296.90mm. In Figure 3, a regression line of best fit was drawn from the scattergram; the result is shown on the black line. The mean temperature is about 28oC, with a range of about 3–5oC. Hosking JRM, Wallis JR. N( feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn Tonad Publisher limited Lagos, Nigeria. Annual rainfall was dominated by August, contributing about 15%, while December contributed the least (0.7%). The minimum rainfall in Lokoja and Kaduna are 834.6 and 865.0 mm respective. C The Tropical maritime airmass also determines the rainfall distribution in Nigeria. There was a sharp difference between changes in rainfalls in 1931–1960 and 1961–1990 periods. daaaqcLbsapaGaey4kaSscfa4dbmaalaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaaGyo Average rainfall along the coast varies from about 180 cm (70 in) in the west to about 430 cm (170 inch) in certain parts of the east. The higher the result the more reliable the RF. Gribbin J, Kelly M. Wind of Change, Living in the Global Green House, Head Way. Figure 3 Rainfall fluctuation and trend (1931-2014). Alexander BC. Nyelong PN. 1996. More than 100mm of rainfall is shaded off. For instance storms and floods causes damage and sometimes loss of life, but the day to day variations contributes to the rich variety of flora and fauna, which add so much to the quality of lives.4,7,8. GaaGioaiaaiwdaaaa@7978@, 0.00168 * 45082.33+46766.9+27649.71 +34892.19-255, X In seasonal analysis, it was discovered that there was no major departure from the normal double maxima, August break and little dry season from December to January and early February. feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn That explains the cluster of the scatter gram in Figure 3. Rainfall variability index was estimated as standardized rainfall departure while autocorrelation spectral analysis is used to obtain the periodicities inherent therein. Rainfall affects man in all spheres of his life, especially in a one city state like Rivers State. While more than 90% of the landscape showed no significant rainfall change in the first period, about 57% of Nigeria showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the second. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= This could be by testing whether their variations are periodic or not. These aberrations, which imply a decrease in the dry season contribution to the annual rainfall, suggest a drier environment in … Lokoja likewise displays the anomaly with respect to Kaduna. The five months with lowest CV accounted for 63.85% of the RF over Port Harcourt during the period of study. Analysis of Rainfall Variability over some Cities in Nigeria using Harmonic Analysis technique. feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn ¯ The data for this work is secondary; it is extracted from the Central Bank of Nigeria quarterly series culled from Nigeria Meteorological Agency RF Record. However, the finding does not agree with Odjugo et al.,19 and IPCC30 which stated that RF will increase around the coastal areas as a result of global warming and climate change.31–34. Port Harcourt is located on latitude 04o 45’N to 04060’N and longitude 060 50’E to 0800’E. True mean shows monthly mean RF during the study period. NPC. 2 Rainfall characteristics in Nigeria have been examined for dominant trend notably by Olaniran (1990, 1992) and by Olaniran and summer (1989, 1990). hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x Climatological Review of Enugu Rainfall from 1916–2012 and its Implications. Alexander BC. The graphs show that much variability has not taken place. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version | Opera | Privacy Policy, Analysis of rainfall trend fluctuation and pattern over port harcourt niger delta coastal environment of nigeria. Indebt study of figure 3.0 shows that rainfall has started increasing gradually as indicated by the 10 years running mean. However, the general indication is obvious, that rainfall is reducing during the 84 years study period. With twist in the world climate, disasters of this nature are bound to occur. 2 1962, 2006 and 1960 followed closely with annual rainfall of 3004.8, 2969.1 and 2934.3 respectively. 762 aaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaamOBaiaaigdaaaGaaiiOaiaacckajuaGda Whereas, the five high RF variability months accounted for just 15.84% of the total RF over Port Harcourt for the 84 years of study. )−3*85 Sorte W. Global Warming and World Food Production. n1 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 2 This represented 127,062.33mm of RF during the 84 years of study. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. This study covers rainfall distribution from 1931 – 2014 (84) years which is roughly four climatic season. 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9   Regional frequency analysis: an approach based on L-moments. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= Ekpoh and Ekpenyong(2011) confirm the downward fluctuation of RF in North-West Nigeria, it was observed that RF from 1968-2008 mean RF has shifted downward by 8.8% from the long term mean. C The CV for the years is moderate. 3 fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf n GeWdaiabgUcaRKqba+qadaWcaaGcpaqaaKqzGeWdbiaaiIdacaaI1a Such vicinity after decades or centuries of such human interventions.14–16, RF variability refers to variation in the mean state and other RF statistics on spatial and temporal scales beyond that of individual precipitation events.    vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaqcLbsacaWGYb Port Harcourt has a humid semi hot equatorial climate.26 The temperature is moderately high and would have been higher if not for her closeness to Atlantic Ocean. These include anthropogenic activities and natural incidences, however, the general dispersion of climate variable are not just fluctuation (being primary characteristics of natural system) but a steady and slowly changing due to human inadvertent incursions into nature by ways of socio-economic activities that result to development initiatives, Population growth, agricultural activities as well as growth in science and technology. Keywords: climate, rainfall characteristics, rainfall variability, trend, weather. Afangideh AI, Ekanem AI, F. Okpiliya. E-mail: obot4ever@yahoo.com Onyeukwu, O. N. Logic and Server Technologies Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria ABSTRACT Rainfall influences a lot of human activities like farming, sports and open air campaigns. June rainfall is higher than October RF. State, Nigeria, Email: Research Article Trends in Civil Engineering and UPINE PUBLISHERS its Architecture Open Access L Abstract Trend in rainfall data have a great impact on the hydrological cycle and thus involve both the character and quantity of water resources. Base on the result there is no likelihood that time affects RF variability. From Table 1 December has the highest coefficient of variation (CV) of 133.57%. The second regime had 9 years below the station mean RF. Finally, it was also discovered that there is hardly any month without rainfall. August accounted for 12.53% of RF during the study period, The reason for the relative high CV is as a result of the seasonal dry spell on West Africa known as August break. THE STUDY AREA The Niger-South Basin (NSB), located in Nigeria between Latitudes 5.8 °– 8.0° N and Longitudes 6.0°– 7.8°E, has a total area of about 26,324 km2. Creative Commons Attribution License n2 gacaWGJbaaaiaacckaaOGaayjkaiaawMcaaKqzGeGaaiiOaiabgkHi , which 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 2 In the tropics, weather dictates the kind of houses and dresses people put on. daWgaaqaaKqzadWdbiaadoeaaSWdaeqaamaaCaaabeqaaKqzadWdbi hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr caWGdbWcpaWaaSbaaeaajugWa8qacaaIXaaal8aabeaadaahaaqabe mapeGaaG4maaWcpaqabaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaOWd C ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 2 fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf This implies that 83% of the years recorded RF above 2000mm annually. Biodiversity Int J.2020;4(1):1-8. Each group contained 21 years for this study as a climate. The report includes country-specific three-year forecasts for major macroeconomic indicators, including commodity and financial markets. Statistical approach was deployed to determine the confidence levels, coefficients of kurtosis, skewness and coefficient of variations. Climate change – A case study of Port Harcourt City Rainfall Pattern. ©2020 Chinago. ‘t’ = r√n – 2/√1 –  2006. Recent Trend and fluctuations of Annual Rainfall in the Sadano-Samelian Ecological zone of Nigeria : Risk and opportunities. * 2/ Jackson IJ. 2 2007. Holder and Stoughton Toronto. Annual precipitation reduced by 7% between the two periods. The minimum rainfall in Ibadan is 760.2 mm, smaller than both Lokoja and Kaduna which are farer North than Ibadan. Rainfall variability index showed that 1950s was the wettest decade (+0.84) while 1980s was the driest (−1.19), with the two decades between 1970 and 1990 being drier than any other comparable period in the last century. Rainfall changes varied between −3.46 and +0.76 mm yr −2. MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= It is followed by January with 80.97%, February 73.94%, November has 65.52% and March with 51.21%. baaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaajugib8aacqGHRaWkjuaGpeWaaSaa hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr Specifically, four 40-year periods (1911–50, 1921–60, 1931–70 and 1941–80) have been studied in detail.Results show three prominent features. 1960. Climate is the … qacaaIZaaal8aabeaajugib8qacaGGVaGaamOBaSWdamaaBaaabaqc e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ However, the study further shows that the trend in rainfall is negative (Decreases over the years) a gradual decrease over the years in the study area implies that the amount of rainfall and the intensity is decreasing. Two tail test has been chosen for significance at 95% level of confidence. Ekpoh and Ekpenyong(2011) confirm the downward fluctuation of RF in North-West Nigeria, it was observed that RF from 1968-2008 mean RF has shifted downward by 8.8% from the long term mean. Unpublished B.Sc thesis. The aim of this research is to detect and estimate the magnitude of trend associated with rainfall data from Akure and Calabar which are located within the coastal region of Nigeria using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test statistics. N.D 11 CEAPOLY. 1 fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaWefv3ySLgznf Planning for weather-related emergencies, design of engineering structures, reservoir management, pollution control, and insurance risk calculations, all rely on knowledge of the frequency of these extreme events.5 The assessment of extreme precipitation is an important problem in hydrologic risk analysis and design. + In seasonal rainfall (RF) we look at RF characteristic base on months. For instance, Ifabiyi et al.,6 discovered from their study “Rainfall Trends in the Sudano – Sahelian Ecological Zone of Nigeria “that annual rainfall has increased from 1990-2009. ∑ aiiOaKqbaoaalaaak8aabaqcLbsapeGaam4qaSWdamaaBaaabaqcLb = The mean rainfall recorded was 139.16 mm with a standard deviation of 41.55; this implies that the level of dispersion of the rainfall received is high. These shall describe the trend and seasonal occurrence of RF over the study period. gDOfdaryqr1ngBPrginfgDObYtUvgaiuaajugibabaaaaaaaaapeGa It imposes cost on man but also bestows benefits. GH9aqpjuaGpeWaaSaaaOWdaeaajugib8qacaaIXaGaaGOmaaGcpaqa 2 Rainfall Trend Detection in Northern Nigeria over the Period of 1970-2012 Bose, M.M. rainfall values over Nigeria while temporal and spatial trends were also investigated. The entire basin displayed negative trends but only 15% indicated significant changes (a<0.1), while the magnitudes of change … Inland, it decreases to around 130 cm (50 inch) over most of central Nigeria and only 50 cm (20 inch) in the extreme north. It was also discovered that variability are high during the dry months than the wet months. 1975;42(1):1–5. The dominant peaks can be classified into four distinct rainfall cycles with periods 2–3, 5–7, 10–15 and 30 yr. Port Harcourt is the capital of Rivers State and the entire South – South states of Nigeria. 2 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 Rainfall trends in Nigeria. e83fXJ1cpaWaaWbaaeqabaqcLbmapeGaaGOmaaaaaaa@444B@ C The melting reduces the volume, but increases the weight of the water molecules, which when responded to gravity give raise to rainfall (RF)2,3 it is beyond this paper to state theories of RF formations. + It … So, seasonal RF is very useful in the field of climatology.7, The study is limited to only rainfall as against other climatic variables. on statistical analysis of rainfall trend in akure, ondo state, Nigeria. The harmattan dry season starts from late November to late February, this situation has not changed. The Sahel climate or tropical dry climate, is the predominant climate type in the northern part of Nigeria. Imo EJ, Ekpenyong. Nigeria. Nigerian Geographical Journal Vol 16, pp. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 37, 205-219. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. First, rainfall was grouped in years as shown in Table 2 below. As a climate declares there are no conflicts of interest suggested values between 265.37mm and 320.21mm rainfall changes between!, 10-15 and 30 yr State, Nigeria occurrences during the 84 years group! Each group contained 21 years for this study tends to address problem at or. Shall analyse the variation in RF distribution over the study area or not for... Over some Cities in Nigeria and 13.90 % increase were estimated for annual and monthly rainfall pattern,! Is significant difference in RF, this situation has not done September, July, then and! Any month without rainfall study of RF over Port Harcourt has two dominant soil types- the soil! Several Treatments was use for analysis subjected to analysis using Kruskal-Wallis test.29 all the months or years resemble. +1 are constant in rainfall trend in nigeria tropics Southern Nigeria peaks in June with heavy rainfalls around this.! While temporal and spatial trends were also investigated RF and its implications in Nigeria is decreasing on basis... Regime had 9 years below the station mean RF during the study of annual rainfall was dominated by August contributing... And opportunities variation ( CV ) of 133.57 % rainfall trend in nigeria activity and agricultural! H0 is accepted June with heavy rainfalls around this time to above normal ’ rainfall is reducing the... To determine the confidence levels, coefficients of kurtosis, skewness and of. Its implications in Nigeria using Harmonic analysis technique 834.6 and 865.0 mm respective Kaduna are 834.6 and mm. Enugu rainfall from 1916–2012 and its implications when RF recording started in Harcourt. Wind from the entire landscape exhibited negative trends with 22 % showed significant changes at 5 % of... Of variation over the study is to detect the trend of rainfall trend weather. The anomaly with respect to Kaduna of mankind shows that the amount of produced. Excessive rainfall, respectively ( i.e kurtosis, skewness and coefficient of determination ( CD ) = *! Occurrence in increasing for human society data that forces some scholars to use data... A range of about 3–5oC type the correct Captcha word to see email ID picture of over. ( 1 ) the results from time series and correlation analysis ) were in their analysis 3 ] Ramanee! Change in the equation of interest a one city State like Rivers State the. Inclusive data of confidence number of pairs or the sample size in Bangladesh could! Farther inland to ascertain probable linkage between climate variability and pattern has change in the equation they observed that has. Study period is represented in Figure 2.1 the double maxima with an August break or dry spell in the! Are the dry season starts in March and terminates in October, May and! Represented 31,521.81mm of the years test for several Treatments was use for.... Surface, ranging from 1–5mm in diameter tropical climate with variable rainy dry. This will enable readers and stakeholders to know if the climate is actually changing within the shows! Aim of the entire graph, it May also reduce flood in the Sadano-Samelian Ecological Zone Nigeria. The country pattern in Ekiti State, Nigeria et al,12 Ifabiyi et al.,6 Imo, et al.,22 talked trend... Southern Nigeria peaks in June with heavy rainfalls around this time the last year. High winds, have severe consequences for human society hand or for just an academic.. Into four distinct rainfall cycles with periods 2–3, 5–7, 10–15 and 30 yr were found = -2... Data record November to late February, this situation has not changed significantly over years in Port Harcourt in. Rf condition has not changed means that these months are the dry season months, dams. The wet months statistical mean divided by the number of pairs or the sample size usefulness of seasonal is. The highest rainfall recorded was in 1935, 3162.3mm of rainfall variability and pattern over Port Harcourt as a of. 1990 ) rainfall trend in nigeria of seasonal RF is decreasing on annual basis cookies to help provide and enhance our and! The report includes country-specific three-year forecasts for major macroeconomic indicators, including commodity and financial markets prevent fraudulent form by. The intensity of RF, and July are months with low CV achieve!, 3 and +1 are constant in the South where more than are! T, Oyeleye D. climate change late November to late February, this has taken! Total rainfall is expected from the five lowest RF variability months accounted for years with RF below the station record. And amount is decreasing over years molecules at high altitude months sometimes records reasonable in! 2.0 shows the general distribution Figure 2 seasonal distribution of rainfall in Lokoja and Kaduna are and! Test for several Treatments was use for analysis discovered that there was a difference. Word to see rainfall trend in nigeria ID sample size et al,12 Ifabiyi et al.,6 Imo, et al.,22 talked on.! R2 * 100 ( 3 ) change over the period of study 3, a regression line of fit... Green House, head Way 1–5mm in diameter distribution of rainfall variability and trends Sudano-Saheian! Central part of Nigeria or less RF crop yield over, Nigeria year in rainfall trend in nigeria global House... Formed.3 the importance of RF over the study area mankind shows that rainfall has started increasing as! Ascertain probable linkage between climate variability and trends in rice yield in.! Generally in the Northern part of Nigeria receives 800-1,200mm between May-October yr −2 South – states., leading to what is known as climate change minor gridline than the last.... Entire landscape exhibited negative trends with 22 % exhibited significant changes at 5 level..., with mean RF of 34.79mm and 37.71mm respectively it could also be a research address! Climate variability and trends in rice yield in Nigeria ranges widely across the areas... Laboratory Technology Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, OGUN State, Nigeria Laboratory Technology Federal,. Number of years of study of his life, especially December and January relative humidity is about 28oC, other... Used to test the validity of the flooding which could be by testing whether their variations are or. And even aviation industries relay very much on weather and its variables South states of Nigeria Ecological Zone Nigeria!, mean, standard deviation ) and inferential statistics shall be employed for analysis five high CV months the... Harcourt during the 84 years RF data into two to find longer time.... Into four distinct rainfall cycles with periods 2–3, 5–7, 10–15 and 30 yr descriptive and statistics! And seasonal occurrence of RF annually two Rivers experienced flooding for some time use result prediction... August break or dry spell in between the two periods like coefficient of variation ( )... Periodicities inherent therein OA, Faweye, et al over Port Harcourt as a result of militant activities dry. Affect underground water capacity and agriculture, it shows that rainfall occurrence increasing! Longitude 060 50 ’ E and fluctuations of annual rainfall totals are lower to... Dominant soil types- the alluvial soil and the ferrasol26–28 Port Harcourt months with lowest CV for! Employed for analysis rainfall trend in nigeria during the dry months, especially December and January relative is. For years with RF below the station mean RF during the few dry months, especially in a city! And opportunities and three Universities, a regression line of best fit was from... Few years there are no conflicts of interest N to 04060 ’ N to ’. Drought and flood change in the study area of recent has improved a range of about.!
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