This species is very similar to, and often mistaken for, the common dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. However, dandelion flowers are borne singly on unbranched, hairless and leafless, hollow stems, while cat's ear flowering stems are branched, solid, and carry bracts. L. [57] In December 2017, Linglong Group Co. Ltd., a Chinese company, invested $450 million into making commercially viable rubber from dandelions. ex Bess.) Taraxacum are native to Eurasia, and have been widely introduced to North and South America and other continents. Achenes slightly compressed, fusiform to clavate, ribbed, muricate distally, with a short smooth apical cone contracted into a long filiform beak; pappus of numerous barbellate bristles, … The genus is taxonomically very complex, with numerous macrospecies, and polyploidy is also common; over 250 species have been recorded in the British Isles alone (Richards 1972). taraxacum erythrospermum (или казано на български - глухарче) | Author Иванов in Photo Forum The flower heads are yellow to orange coloured, and are open in the daytime, but closed at night. Genus: Taraxacum Sectio: T. sect. [47], Dandelion pollen may cause allergic reactions when eaten, or adverse skin reactions in sensitive individuals. Britt. [53], Dandelions can cause significant economic damage as an invasive species and infestation of other crops worldwide;[54] in some jurisdictions, the species T. officinale is listed as a noxious weed. 3: 316. J. Weiss Dandelion. A rosette is formed by these green leaves at the stem’s … The seedhead is shown below it. fluffy white red seeded common dandelion in bright green spring grass. [43] Each dandelion seed has a mass(weight) of 500 micrograms or 0.0005g (1/125 of a grain). Taraxacum erythrospermum là một loài thực vật có hoa trong họ Cúc. They are also used as a source of nectar by the pearl-bordered fritillary (Boloria euphrosyne), one of the earliest emerging butterflies in the spring. This is valid also for the section Ruderalia. Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. Both plants have a basal rosette of leaves and a central taproot. [50] Dandelions are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). [39] Raw dandelion greens are 86% water, 9% carbohydrates, 3% protein, and 1% fat. Dandelion plants, Taraxacum officianale and Taraxacum erythrospermum, are native to Europe and Asia and their leaves and roots are edible and have been used by humans for food and as an herb for much of recorded history (Everitt et al., 2007; Richards, 1972; Longe, 2005). punctatum (Richards) Doll; Taraxacum laevigatum var. The flower heads are 2–5 cm (1" to 2") in diameter and consist entirely of ray florets. Taraxacum erythrospermum belongs to the Flowering Plants group. [38] In Finnish and Estonian, the names (voikukka, võilill) translate as butter flower, due to the color of the flower. Pl. Vol. The leaves are 5-25 cm lo… The flower head is surrounded by bracts (sometimes mistakenly called sepals) in two series. Taraxacum erythrospermum. [44] Dandelion greens have been a part of traditional Kashmiri cuisine, Spanish cuisine, Italian cuisine, Albanian cuisine, Slovenian, Sephardic Jewish, Chinese, Greek cuisine (χόρτα) and Korean cuisines. Pollen in the sections Ruderalia and Erythrosperma Diploids in Taraxacum are known for regular pollen, the pollen of triploids is irregular (Fig.2a,b). This allows the plume of seeds to close up and reduce the chance to separate from the stem, waiting for optimal conditions that will maximize dispersal and germination.[15][16]. The website also provides access to a database and images of plants photos and herbarium specimens found at … Taraxacum officinale, also known as dandelion, is a vegetable that most people call a weed. The seeds are able to cover large distances when dispersed due to the unique morphology of the pappus which works to create a unique type of vortex ring[13][14] that stays attached to the seed rather than being sent downstream. [48][medical citation needed], Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China.[40]. 1822. [27] They were well known to ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, and are recorded to have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over a thousand years. Raw dandelion greens contain high amounts of vitamins A, C, and K, and are moderate sources of calcium, potassium, iron, and manganese. In addition to the creation of this vortex ring, the pappus can adjust its morphology depending on the moisture in the air. 'Vert de Montmagny' is a large-leaved, vigorous grower, which matures early. Synonymy: Not Applicable. R. W. Smith. [5] Many Taraxacum species produce seeds asexually by apomixis, where the seeds are produced without pollination, resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant. [30], The English name, dandelion, is a corruption of the French dent de lion[31] meaning "lion's tooth", referring to the coarsely toothed leaves. [39] A 100 gram (​3.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2oz) reference amount supplies 45 calories. 3 vols. View abstract. When development is complete, the mature seeds are attached to white, fluffy "parachutes" which easily detach from the seedhead and glide by wind, dispersing. Citation: Andrz. [2], It is often considered as a variety of Taraxacum laevigatum (i.e., Taraxacum laevigatum var. It has been a Western tradition for someone to blow out a dandelion seedhead and think of a wish wanted to come true. abstract composition in green and white. The latex produced exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. Taraxacum (the Dandelions) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. Many similar plants in the family Asteraceae with yellow flowers are sometimes known as false dandelions. 75 (1822). The heads are borne singly on a hollow stem (scape) that is usually leafless and rises 1–10 cm (​1⁄2" to 4") or more[3] above the leaves. Common name: None. Each single flower in a head is called a floret. Its scientific name is Taraxacum, a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. In Czech it is known as pampeliška where the "liška" part directly translates to a "fox", possibly due to the colour of the flower. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Also, calyculus bracts are more or less modified to enlarged, lobed and dentate bracts, instead of the usual bractlets. [35], The English folk name "piss-a-bed" (and indeed the equivalent contemporary French pissenlit) refers to the strong diuretic effect of the plant's roots. Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. The Persian scientist and philosopher Ibn Sīnā around 1000 CE wrote a book chapter on Taraxacum. Contact dermatitis after handling has also been reported, probably from the latex in the stems and leaves. [56] In collaboration with Continental AG, IME is building a pilot facility. erythrospermum (Andrz. ; Leontodon erythrospermus Britton; Leontodon laevigatus Willd. Like other members of the family Asteraceae, they have very small flowers collected together into a composite flower head. All Images Enlarge Image. Two species, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, are found as weeds worldwide. [18], Dandelions are thought to have evolved about 30 million years ago in Eurasia. After flowering is finished, the dandelion flower head dries out for a day or two. However, the leaves of dandelions are smooth or glabrous, whereas those of catsears are coarsely hairy. The outer bracts are often reflexed downward, but remain appressed in plants of the sections Palustria and Spectabilia. The dandelion flower opens at the time of sunrise and closes at night. The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the g… Both plants carry similar flowers, which form into windborne seeds. T. megalorhizon, a species endemic to Crete, is eaten in the same way; it is found only at high altitudes (1000 to 1600 metres, 3000' to 5000') and in fallow sites, and is called pentaramia (πενταράμια) or agrioradiko (αγριοράδικο).[45]. Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. The plant was used as food and medicine by Native Americans. Nederl. Use our mobile apps to record your observations on your phone or tablet. In the British Isles alone, 234 microspecies are recognised in nine loosely defined sections, of which 40 are "probably endemic".[7]. All parts of both species are edible. ex Bess.) The dried petals and stamens drop off, the bracts reflex (curve backwards), and the parachute ball opens into a full sphere. Bees, beetles and birds need them", "A separated vortex ring underlies the flight of the dandelion", "Moisture-dependent morphing tunes the dispersal of dandelion diaspores", "Taraxacum kok-saghyz (rubber dandelion) genomic microsatellite loci reveal modest genetic diversity and cross-amplify broadly to related species", "Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute - Taraxacum ceratophorum", "Gardening in Western Washington: Dandelions", "Den virtuella floran: Taraxacum F. H. Wigg. Collins New Naturalist series Volume 56, ground, roasted roots can be used as a caffeine-free coffee alternative, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, "Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies", "Let dandelions grow. Taraxacum erythrospermum Besser: Common Name: RED-SEEDED DANDELION: Coefficient of Conservatism: * Coefficient of Wetness: 5 Wetness Index: UPL Physiognomy: Ad P-Forb. Gerard of Cremona, in translating Arabic to Latin around 1170, spelled it tarasacon. Synonyms:Taraxacum austriacum Soest, Proc. The Welsh (dant-y-llew), German (Löwenzahn), Norwegian (løvetann), Portuguese (dente de leão) and Spanish (diente de león) names mean the same as the French and the English names. Sinonimi. A dandelion is a flower. punctatum (Richards) R.Doll; Taraxacum laevigatum (Willd.) It is used around the world for its diuretic effect. [4] The common name dandelion (/ˈdændɪlaɪ.ən/ DAN-di-ly-ən, from French dent-de-lion, meaning "lion's tooth") is given to members of the genus. The genus is native to Eurasia and North America, but the two commonplace species worldwide, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, were introduced from Europe and now propagate as wildflowers. However, in Taraxacum sect. Britt. Taraxalisin, a serine proteinase, is found in the latex of dandelion roots. 1913. It is kept as a companion plant; its taproot brings up nutrients for shallow-rooting plants. Early-flowering dandelions may be distinguished from coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara) by their basal rosette of leaves, their lack of disc florets, and the absence of scales on the flowering stem.[17]. Description: Perennial herb 5-17 cm high; leaves 3-15 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, oblanceolate, acute to obtuse, with a narrow petiole-like base, shallowly dentate to runcinate-pinnatipartire, lax, glabrous. It may refer to any species of the genus, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, S. Potter & L. Sargent (1973) Pedigree: essays on the etymology of words from nature. Each achene is attached to a pappus of fine hair-like material which enables wind-aided dispersal over long distances. Early leaves of Taraxacum erythrospermum sometimes may be broadly winged along the midvein, making distinction from T. officinale difficult; usually, its later leaves become more deeply lobed with time. Apomictic species range eastwards to Turkey and south to Andalucía. They are an invasive species in some areas. In rich soils, they can be up to 60 cm (2') wide. Red-seeded dandelion is native to Europe and widely introduced in North America. The beak breaks off from the achene quite easily, separating the seed from the parachute. The Persian scientist Al-Razi around 900 CE wrote "the tarashaquq is like chicory". A number of species of Taraxacum are seed-dispersed ruderals that rapidly colonize disturbed soil, especially the common dandelion (T. officinale), which has been introduced over much of the temperate world. It most readily differs by its reddish-brown seed bases, unlike the more olive colored seeds of T. officinale. Leontodon erythrospermus Eichw. They are tap-rooted biennial or perennial herbaceous plants, native to temperate areas of the Northern Hemisphere of the Old World. [52] The citizens celebrate spring with an annual Dandelion Festival. austriacum Taraxacum austriacum var. Eionet; Network of the Heads of Environment Protection Agencies (EPA network) False dandelion is a common name for a number of plants similar to dandelions. In Lithuanian, it is known as "Pienė", meaning "milky", because of the white latex that is produced when the stems are cut. Erythrosperma species are • small and delicate with highly dissected leaves. ex Besser This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Mongolia and Caucasus. It is also known to attract pollinating insects and release ethylene gas, which helps fruit to ripen.[51]. Taraxacum erythrospermum, lush foliage ; Taraxacum austriacum Soest; Taraxacum austriacum var. Stems and leaves exude a white, milky latex when broken. Koninkl. Typus:Lectotype not yet selected. These are readily distinguished by branched flowering stems, which are usually hairy and bear leaves. Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. Taraxacum austriacum van Soest; Taraxacum austriacum var. Taraxacum (/təˈræksəkʊm/) is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions. [54][55], Dandelions secrete latex when the tissues are cut or broken, yet in the wild type, the latex content is low and varies greatly. Erythrosperma Species: Taraxacum erythrospermum. 'Amélioré à Coeur Plein' yields an abundant crop without taking up much ground, and tends to. Animals like butterflies, insects, and birds consume the seeds or nectar of dandelion. Loài này được Andrz. The entire plant, including the leaves, stems, flowers, and roots, is edible and nutritious. General information about Taraxacum erythrospermum (TARER) This species represents Section Erythrospermum. The inner bracts are erect until the seeds mature, then flex downward to allow the seeds to disperse. in Besser, Enum. The leaves of T. erythrospermum thus bear a closer resemblance to the basal leaves of sow thistles (Sonchus oleraceus). Networks. Mobile apps. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 17:05. A rosette may produce several flowering stems at a time. Pl. Taraxacum seeds are an important food source for certain birds (linnets, Linaria spp.). Leontodon laevigatus Willd., 1803 Taraxacum austriacum van Soest Taraxacum austriacum var. S2 - Typically 6 to 20 occurrences, few remaining individuals, acres, or miles of stream, or factors demonstrably making it … ex Besser, Enum. Its ground, roasted roots can be used as a caffeine-free coffee alternative. Dandelions were once considered delicacies by the Victorian gentry, who used them mostly in salads and sandwiches. [29], The Latin name Taraxacum originates in medieval Persian writings on pharmacy. A perennial plant, its leaves grow back if the taproot is left intact. • Exterior bracts are <9 mm long, usually <7 mm. Europe, Caucasus. In part due to their abundance along with being a generalist species, dandelions are one of the most vital early spring nectar sources for a wide host of pollinators. Five dandelion flowers are the emblem of White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia. In Crete, the leaves of a variety called 'Mari' (Μαρί), 'Mariaki' (Μαριάκι), or 'Koproradiko' (Κοπροράδικο) are eaten by locals, either raw or boiled, in salads. is a genus of the sunflower (Helianthus) family Asteraceae), and closely related to dandelion (Taraxacum), chicory (Cichorium), prickly lettuce … The lobe at the tip is typically about the same size as the lateral lobes. 75. The record derives from TICA (data supplied on 2012-02-11) which reports it as an accepted name (record E279C4F3-EEE2-495D-8704-C68CF8B14F6B) with original publication details: 75 1822. 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Rosette of leaves and a central taproot plants by the larvae of some species of Taraxacum native... The leaf blades are more narrowly and deeply lobed than other dandelion Taraxacum... Họ Cúc 86 % water, 9 % carbohydrates, 3 % protein, and roots, is and. A book chapter on Taraxacum are found as weeds worldwide fruit matures flowering is finished the... ( TARER ) This species is accepted, and only accept a total of 60! Amount of the Northern United States, Canada and the achene quite easily, separating the seed from latex! The Northern Hemisphere of the Northern Hemisphere accept a total of about 60.! A substantial amount of the Old World a substantial amount of the Northern United States, Canada and the Possessions. Than other dandelion ( Taraxacum ) species they are modified sepals in collaboration with Continental AG, IME building! When broken, West Virginia soils, they have very small flowers collected together into a yellow-pigmented powder used! Section erythrospermum petals, along with other ingredients, usually including citrus are! Laevigatum has been used for L. erythrospermum in North America, following H. Handel-Mazzetti ( 1907 ) are until... Plants with superficially similar flowers, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions without taking up much,... A basal rosette of leaves and a central taproot use our mobile apps to record your observations your...